List of Biosensors by Class

Biosensor variant name links to biosensor details, year links to reference details.
TargetReadout MechVariants
Cell Cycle
Cell Cycle PhasesInten (☀)
FucciFucci(CA)2.1(2017) ☀Fucci4(2016) ☀NIR Fucci(2016) ☀NIR cell cycle reporter(2016) ☀Fucci2.1(2013) ☀Fucci2(2011) ☀zFucci(2009) ☀S/G2/M-X(NC)(2008) ☀Fucci(2008) 
G1 PhaseTransloc. (⛖)
G1 Phase BiosensorG1 Phase Biosensor(2009) 
S PhaseTransloc. (⛖)
S Phase BiosensorS Phase Biosensor(2009) 
Cell Environment
Mechanical StrainFRET (⚡)
Ex. Rat.(★)
HP35HP35st-TS(2015) ⚡HP35-TS(2015) 
PriSSMPriSSM(2008) 
stFRETcpstFRET(2012) ⚡sstFRET(2011) ⚡stFRET(2008) 
TSModTSMod F25 (2016) ⚡TSMod(2010) 
Molecular crowdingFRET (⚡)
Crowding sensorCrowding sensor(2015) 
pHEm. Rat. (☆)
Rat. (◧)
FRET (⚡)
Inten (☀)
Ex. Rat.(★)
deGFPdeGFP family(2002) 
Dual pH and Cl sensorClopHensor(2010) 
E^xGFPE^1GFP(2007) ◧E^2GFP(2006) 
FluBpHFluBpH 7.5(2017) ⚡FluBpH 6.1(2017) ⚡FluBpH 5.7(2017) 
mtAlpHimtAlpHi(2004) 
Native FP pH SensitivitymNect(2009) ☀pHVenus(2007) ⚡CFP-YFP pH FRET(2004) ☀EGFP(1998) ☀EYFP(1998) 
pHCECpHCECSensor01(2008) 
pHluorinspHluorin2(2011) ☀Superecliptic-pHluorin(2000) ★ratiometric-pHluorin(1998) ☀Ecliptic-pHluorin(1998) 
pHRedpHRed(2011) 
pHTomatosyHTomato(2012) 
pHujipHuji(2014) 
pHusionpHusion(2012) 
SypHerSypHer3s(2018) ★SypHer-2(2015) ☀SypHer(2011) 
XFpHYFpH(2001) ⚡GFpH(2001) 
V+Inten (☀)
BRET (◓)
Rat. (◧)
FRET (⚡)
ArcLight Species VariantsHuman Q193 ArcLight (2013) ☀Zebrafish Q175 ArcLight(2013) ☀Chicken Q175 ArcLight(2013) ☀Frog Q174 ArcLight(2013) 
Ci-VSP based sensorsVSD-FR189-188(2017) ◓LOTUS-V(2017) ☀Marina(2017) ☀tdFlicR1 delta 110AR(2016) ☀FlicGR1(2016) ☀ASAP2f(2016) ◧tdFlicR-VK-ASAP(2016) ☀FlicR1(2016) ☀Bongwoori(2015) ☀ArcLightning(2015) ⚡Nabi2.213(2015) ☀ASAP1(2014) ⚡Chimeric VSFP-Butterfly YR(2014) ⚡Chimeric VSFP-Butterfly CY(2014) ⚡Mermaid2(2013) ☀ArcLight A242(2012) ⚡Chimera Cx(2012) ⚡VSFP-CR(2012) ☀ElectricPk(2012) ⚡VSFP Butterfly 1.2(2012) ⚡VSFP2.3(2010) ⚡VSFP2.42(2010) ⚡VSFP2.4(2009) ☀VSFP3.1(2008) ⚡Mermaid(2008) ⚡VSFP2.1(2007) 
Danio VSP based sensorZahara 2 SE (227D)(2015) ☀Zahra 1 SE (227D) series(2015) ⚡Zahra 1(2012) ⚡Zahra 2(2012) 
Kv Based V sensorsFlaSH (CFP) + FlaSh (YFP)(2002) ☀FlaSh L366A(2002) ☀FlaSh IR(2002) ⚡VSFP1(2001) ☀FlaSh(1997) 
Na Channel based V SensorsSPARC(2002) 
Nematostella VSP based sensorsNema(2012) 
rhodopsin based V sensorsArchon2(2018) ☀Archon1(2018) ☀VARNAM(2018) ☀FRET-opsin Ace1Q-mNeon(2015) ☀FRET-opsin Ace2N-mNeon(2015) ☀QuasAr2(2014) ☀QuasAr1(2014) ☀FRET-opsin Mac-mCitrine(2014) ⚡eFRET GEVI(2014) ☀Archer1(2014) ☀Arch-EEx variants(2013) ☀PROPS(2011) ☀Arch(D95N)(2011) 
Cellular Analytes
2OGInten (☀)
mOGsormOGsor(2014) 
AmmoniumRat. (◧)
Inten (☀)
AmTracAmTryoshika1;3-LS-F138I -T78H(2017) ◧AmTryoshika1;3-LS-F138I(2017) ☀AmTrac(2013) 
ArabinoseFRET (⚡)
FLIParaFLIPara-250n(2008) 
ArgFRET (⚡)
FRET Arg ReporterFRET Arg Reporter(2007) 
ATPBRET (◓)
FRET (⚡)
Biolum. (⚫)
Ex. Rat.(★)
ATeamBTeam(2016) ⚡ATeam1.03NL(2013) ⚡GO-Ateam(2011) ⚡ATeam3.10(2009) ⚡ATeam1.03(2009) 
EAF-based ATP biosensorEAF-ATP(2013) 
Nano-lantern ATPNano-lantern ATP(2012) 
QUEENQUEEN-2m(2014) ★QUEEN-7mu(2014) 
Syn-ATPSyn-ATP(2014) 
ATP:ADP RatioEx. Rat.(★)
PercevalPercevalHR(2013) ★Perceval(2009) 
BDNFFRET (⚡)
BescellBescell(2008) 
cAMPInten (☀)
FRET (⚡)
BRET (◓)
Rat. (◧)
Biolum. (⚫)
cADDiscADDis-green(2016) 
campsEpac2-camps300-cit(2010) ⚡Epac2-camps300(2009) ⚡HCN2-camps(2006) ⚡Epac2-camps(2004) ⚡Epac1-camps(2004) ⚡PKA-camps(2004) 
CAMYELCAMYEL(2007) 
CUTieCUTie(2017) 
Epac-SEpac-S H188(2015) ⚡Epac-S H187(2015) ⚡H74(2011) ⚡H96(2011) ⚡H84: CFP(nd)-EPAC(dDEP/CD)-Venus(d)(2008) ⚡H81: GFP(nd)-EPAC(dDEP)-mRFP (2008) ⚡H90: CFP(nd)-EPAC(dDEP/CD)-cp173Venus(d)(2008) 
Epac1 (delta DEP-CD) based cAMP biosensorsCEPAC*(2011) ⚡CFP-Epac(delta DEP-CD)-YFP(2004) 
FlamindoPink Flamindo(2017) ☀Flamindo2(2014) ☀Flamindo(2013) 
FPXpPHT-PKA(2015) 
ICUERAB-ICUE(2018) ⚡ICUPID(2011) ⚡ICUE-YR(2011) ⚡ICUE3(2009) ⚡ICUE2(2008) ◓Rluc-EPAC-YFP(2008) ⚡ICUE1(2004) 
mCRIS based cAMP biosensorcit-mCNBD-cer(2013) 
mICNBD-FRETmICNBD-FRET(2016) 
Nano-lantern cAMPNano-lantern cAMP1.6(2012) 
R-FlincAR-FlincA(2018) 
R1alpha #7R1alpha #7(2016) 
Split Luc cAMP biosensor22F(2011) ⚫Split Luc cAMP biosensor(2008) 
YFP-PKAc + CFP-PKArdelta PKA RIIb-CFP + PKAc-YFP(2006) ◓R2-Rluc + GFP-C(2006) ◓R1-Rluc + GFP-C(2006) ⚡YFP-PKAc + CFP-PKAr(R230K)(2004) ⚡YFP-PKAc + CFP-PKAr(2002) ⚡PKAc-S65T + PKArII-EBFP(2000) 
cGMPInten (☀)
FRET (⚡)
Ex. Rat.(★)
cGESCygnus(2010) ⚡cGES-DE5(2006) 
cGKI based cGMP sensorscGi family(2007) 
cGullGreen-cGull(2017) 
CGYCGY-del1(2000) 
cygnetcygnet-2.1(2005) ⚡cygnet-2(2001) 
FlincGFGA^M(2013) ☀H6-FGB(2013) ★delta-FlincG(2008) 
CitrateFRET (⚡)
FLIP-CitFLIP-Cit-Y(2011) 
COInten (☀)
COSerCOSer(2012) 
GlnFRET (⚡)
FLIPQFLIPQ-TV3.0(2012) 
GlucoseFRET (⚡)
FLIPgluFLII^12Pglu-Y Series(2008) ⚡FLIPglu-Y delta 13 (2006) ⚡FLII^XPglu-Y Series (2005) ⚡FLIPglu-600u-delta(X) series(2005) ⚡FLIPglu-Y series(2003) 
GIPAcGFP1-GBPcys-mCherry(2010) ⚡GIP C_0Y_i(2008) ⚡GIP(2003) 
HemeFRET (⚡)
Rat. (◧)
Inten (☀)
CHYCH49Y(2017) 
CISDYCISDY-9(2015) 
Fluorescence quenching HemeHS1(2016) ◧HS1-M7A(2016) ☀CG6(2012) 
HisRat. (◧)
FRET (⚡)
FHisJFHisJ(2017) 
FLIP-HisJFLIP-cpHisJ194(2009) 
InsulinRat. (◧)
RINSRINS1(2017) 
LactateFRET (⚡)
LaconicLaconic(2013) 
maltoseBRET (◓)
FRET (⚡)
Inten (☀)
FLIPmalGFP2-MBP-RLuc2(2013) ⚡FLIPmal-Y delta1(2008) ⚡FLIPmal-Y Series(2002) 
MBPPPYF-green(2011) 
NAD+Inten (☀)
FRET (⚡)
NAD+ BiosensorNAD+ Biosensor(2016) 
NAD-SnifitNAD-Snifit(2018) 
NAD+/NADH RatioRat. (◧)
Ex. Rat.(★)
Inten (☀)
PeredoxPeredox(2011) 
SoNarSoNar(2015) 
T-Rex BasedRexYFP(2014) 
NADHInten (☀)
FrexFrexH(2011) ☀Frex(2011) 
O2Inten (☀)
FRET (⚡)
dUnOHR hypoxia-reoxygenation sensordUnOHR hypoxia-reoxygenation sensor(2016) 
FluBOFluBO(2012) 
PnInten (☀)
EcPhnD basedEcPhnD-cpGFP(2011) 
PyruvateFRET (⚡)
PdhR BasedPYRATES(2017) ⚡Pyronic(2014) 
riboseFRET (⚡)
FLIPribFLIPrib-Y(2003) 
sucroseFRET (⚡)
FLIPsucFLIPsuc-Y(2006) 
TrehaloseFRET (⚡)
FLIPFLIPSuc90μ∆1Venus(2016) 
TrpFRET (⚡)
FLIPWFLIPW(2007) 
Ions
Ca2+Inten (☀)
BRET (◓)
FRET (⚡)
Em. Rat. (☆)
Rat. (◧)
Ex. Rat.(★)
Biolum. (⚫)
Ca2+ SnapshotFLARE(2017) ☀Cal-Light(2017) 
CameleonsD3 BRET(2015) ⚡D1GO-Cam(2012) ⚡CaYang1(2011) ⚡CaYin1(2011) ⚡YC-Nano(2010) ⚡D3cpv(2006) ⚡D4cpV(2006) ⚡D1(2004) ⚡YC3.60(2004) ⚡YC2.12(2002) ⚡YC6.1(2001) ⚡YC2.1(1999) ⚡Split-Cameleon(1997) ⚡Cameleon 3(1997) 
CamgarooCamgaroo2(2001) ☀Camgaroo1(1999) 
CaMPARICaMPARI(2015) 
CASECase16(2007) ☀Case12(2007) 
CatchERCatchER(2011) 
ddFP Ca2+ sensorddRFP Ca2+ sensor(2012) 
ER-GCaMPER-GCaMP6-210(2017) ☀ER-GCaMP6-150(2017) ☀ER-GCaMP3-373 / GCaMPer-10.19(2015) ☀CEPIA1er(2014) 
ER-GECOGEM-CEPIA1er(2014) ☀R-CEPIA1er(2014) ☀G-CEPIA1er(2014) 
FPX Ca2+ Sensorstripartate FPX Ca2+ Sensor(2015) ◧single polypeptide FPX Ca2+ sensor(2015) 
GAPGAP3(2016) ☀GAP1(2014) 
GCaMPaxon-GCaMP6(2018) ☀ncpGCaMP6s(2018) ◧MatryoshCaMP6s(2017) ◧GCaMP-R-6f(2017) ◧sfMatryoshCaMP6s(2017) ◧sfMatryoshCaMP6s-T78H(2017) ◧GCaMP-R-6s(2017) ★FGCaMP(2017) ◧GCaMP-R-3(2017) ☀GCaMP3bright(2015) ☀GCaMP3fast(2015) ☀GCaMP2.2Low(2014) ☀GCaMP6f(2013) ☀GCaMP6m(2013) ☀GCaMP6s(2013) ☀GCaMP5G(2012) ☀G-CaMP 3-8 (Nakai Variants)(2012) ☀GCaMP-HS(2011) ☀GCaMP3(2009) ☀GCaMP2(2006) ☀GCaMP(2001) 
GECOK-GECO1(2018) ◓LUCI-GECO1(2018) ☀jRGECO1a(2016) ☀LAR-GECO(2014) ★REX-GECO(2014) ☀O-GECO(2013) ☀R-GECO1.2(2013) ☀CAR-GECO(2013) ☀GR-GECO(2013) ☀G-GECO1.2(2011) ☀G-GECO1.1(2011) ★GEX-GECO(2011) ☀G-GECO1(2011) ☆GEM-GECO(2011) ☀R-GECO1(2011) ☀B-GECO(2011) 
Nano-lantern Ca2+CeNL(Ca2+)_110u(2018) ◓CeNL(Ca2+)_19u(2018) ◓GeNL(Ca2+)(2016) ◓CNL (Ca2+) (2015) ◓ONL (Ca2+)(2015) ⚫Nano-lantern Ca2+(2012) 
NTnCYTnC(2018) ☀iYTnC2(2018) ☀NTnC(2016) 
pericamratiometric-pericam(2001) ☀inverse-pericam(2001) ☀flash-pericam(2001) 
RCaMPjRCaMP1b(2016) ☀jRCaMP1a(2016) ☀R-CaMP2(2015) ☀RCaMP1h(2013) ☀R-CaMP1.07(2012) 
TN Ca2+ SensorsCalfluxVTN(2016) ⚡Twitch series(2014) ⚡RS-TN-XL(2013) ⚡YO-TnC1.0(2012) ⚡TN-XXL(2008) ⚡TN-XL(2006) ⚡TN-humTnC(2004) ⚡TN-L15(2004) 
Cd2+FRET (⚡)
Cd-FRETCd-FRET2(2011) 
Cu+FRET (⚡)
Yeast Copper regulator basedAce1-FRET(2011) ⚡Mac1-FRET(2011) ⚡Amt1-FRET(2010) 
Halide IonsFRET (⚡)
Rat. (◧)
Inten (☀)
ClomeleonSuperClomeleon(2013) ⚡Cl-sensor(2008) ⚡Clomeleon(2000) 
Dual pH and Cl sensorClopHensor(2010) 
Halide Sensitive Fluorescent ProteinsCl-YFP(2014) ☀YFP(H148Q, I152L)(2001) ☀YFP(H148Q)(2000) 
Hg(II)Inten (☀)
eGFP based Hg sensoreGFP205C(2008) 
IFP based Hg sensorIFP based Hg sensor(2011) 
Mg2+FRET (⚡)
MagFRETMagFRET-1(2013) 
PhosphateFRET (⚡)
FLIPPiFLIPPi-5mu(2006) ⚡FLIPPi-30m(2006) 
Zn2+BRET (◓)
FRET (⚡)
Inten (☀)
Atox1 WD4 Based Zn2+ ProbesBLCALWY-1(2016) ⚡redCALWY(2013) ⚡eCALWY series (2009) ⚡CALWY(2007) ⚡CFP-Atox1 + WD4-YFP(2006) 
GZnPGZnP2(2018) ☀GZnP1(2016) 
Minimal Zinc Finger Based Zn Probesmito-ZifCY1.173(2012) ⚡His4-Zn2+ sensor(2009) ⚡Cys2Hys2 - Zn2+ Sensor(2009) 
Zap1 Based Zn ProbesZapCV5(2017) ⚡ZapCV2(2017) ⚡ZapCY2(2011) ⚡ZapCY1(2011) ⚡ZF1/2-FRET(2006) 
ZinChBLZinCh-2(2016) ◓BLZinCh-3(2016) ⚡eZinCh-2(2015) ⚡eZinCh-1(2011) ⚡Cly9-2His(2008) ⚡ZinCh-x(2007) 
Kinases/Phosphatases
AblFRET (⚡)
Abl IndicatorAbl Indicator(2001) 
AktFRET (⚡)
Transloc. (⛖)
Ex. Rat.(★)
FLIM (♣)
AkindAkind(2006) 
Akt translocation ReportersAkt-FoxO3a-KTR-EGFP(2016) ⛖FoxO1-clover(2015) 
AktARExRai-AktAR(2018) ⚡AktAR2(2015) ⚡AktAR(2008) 
AktUSAktus(2003) 
BKARBKAR v2(2014) ⚡BKAR(2005) 
Dual Labeled AktGFP-PKB-RFP(2007) ♣GFP-AKT-YFP(2003) 
Eevee-AktEevee-iAkt(2014) ⚡Eevee-Akt(2011) 
ReAktionReAktion1(2007) 
AMPKFRET (⚡)
AMPKARAMPKAR-EV(2017) ⚡bimABKAR(2015) ⚡ABKAR(2015) ⚡AMPKAR(2011) 
ATM kinaseFRET (⚡)
ATOMICATOMIC(2007) 
Aurora B kinaseFRET (⚡)
Aurora B sensorAurora B sensor (Chu)(2011) ⚡Aurora B Sensor (Fuller)(2008) 
Aurora Kinase AFRET (⚡)
AURKA BiosensorAURKA Biosensor(2016) 
B-RafFRET (⚡)
Prin-BRafPrin-BRaf(2006) 
Bcr-AblFRET (⚡)
PicklesPickles-2.3(2010) 
C-RafFRET (⚡)
Prin-CRafPrin-CRaf(2005) 
CaMKIIFLIM (♣)
FRET (⚡)
CamuiCamui-mRmC(2016) ♣ShadowG-Camui(2015) ⚡Camui?-CR (Clover-mRuby2)(2012) ♣green-Camui (alpha)(2009) ♣mRFP/GFP-Camui(2008) ⚡Camui(2005) 
K2alphaRS-K2Alpha(2013) ⚡RY-K2alpha(2013) ⚡YC-K2alpha(2013) 
CaNFRET (⚡)
CaN ActivationYC-CaN(2013) ⚡RY-CaN(2013) 
CaNARCaNAR2(2014) ⚡CaNAR1(2008) 
CaNARiCaNARi(2014) 
DuoCaNUniCaN(2015) ⚡DuoCaN(2015) 
CDK1FRET (⚡)
CyclinB1-Cdk1 activity sensorCyclinB1-Cdk1 activity sensor V2(2014) ⚡CyclinB1-Cdk1 activity sensor V1(2010) 
CDK2Transloc. (⛖)
CDK2 Translocation ReporterDHB-Ven(2013) 
DAPK1FRET (⚡)
DAPK1 sensorDAPK1(2011) 
EGFRFRET (⚡)
ECausECaus(2008) 
EGFR ReporterEGFR Reporter(2001) 
FLAMEPTB-EYFP, EGFR-ECFP(2004) ⚡FLAME(2004) 
Picchu-ZPicchu-Z(2005) 
ERKFRET (⚡)
Inten (☀)
FLIM (♣)
BRET (◓)
Transloc. (⛖)
FLINC (◀)
Rat. (◧)
EASEAS3(2005) 
EKARVcpV FLARE EKAR(2018) ☀RAB-EKARev(2018) ⚡mCh-mCh FLARE EKAR(2018) ⚡C3C3 FLARE EKAR(2018) ⚡VV FLARE EKAR(2018) ♣EKARet(2017) ♣EKAR^dual(2017) ⚡bimEKAR(2015) ⚡EKAR3(2015) ⚡EKAR-TVV(2014) ⚡EKAREV-TVV(2014) ◓REV(2013) ⚡EKAR2G(2013) ⚡EKAREV(2011) ⚡EKAR(2008) 
ERK-KTRERK-KTR(2014) 
ErkusErkus(2007) 
ERKyERKy(2012) 
FLINC-EKAR1FLINC-EKAR1(2017) 
FPX ERKFPX EKAR(2015) 
Miu2Miu2(2006) 
FAKFRET (⚡)
FAK Activation BiosensorCYFAK413(2008) 
FAK Autophosphorylation BiosensorFAK Autophosphorylation Biosensor(2008) 
FAK sensorFAK sensor(2011) 
Fus3Transloc. (⛖)
Far1-SKARSFar1-SKARS(2015) 
GCKFRET (⚡)
GCK Activation BiosensorsFRET-GCK (cp173-mCer3/mVen)(2016) ⚡FRET-GCK (mCer/mVen)(2011) ⚡Cerulean-GCK-mCit(2004) ⚡FRET-GCK(2002) 
H3-S28pFRET (⚡)
Histone Phosphorylation reporterHistone Phosphorylation reporter(2004) 
INSRBRET (◓)
FRET (⚡)
Inten (☀)
Insulin Receptor Activation BRET assayInsulin Receptor Activation BRET assay(2001) 
PhocusPhocus-2pp nes(2002) ⚡Phocus2(2002) 
sinphosyellow-sinphos(2004) ☀green-sinphos(2004) ☀cyan-sinphos(2004) 
JNKFRET (⚡)
Transloc. (⛖)
dJUN-FRETdJUN-FRET(2008) 
JNK-KTRJNK-KTR(2014) 
JNKARNIR JNKAR(2018) ⚡bimJNKAR(2015) ⚡JNKAR1EV(2011) ⚡JNKAR1(2010) 
JuCKYJuCKY(0) 
Kss1Transloc. (⛖)
Ste7-SKARSSte7-SKARS(2015) 
LATSBiolum. (⚫)
LATS-BSLATS-BS(2018) 
LckFRET (⚡)
Lck Activation sensorCLckY-2(2009) 
MAPK or MK2FRET (⚡)
GMBGMB(2001) 
MARKFRET (⚡)
MARK sensorMARK-AR1(2011) 
Mpk1Transloc. (⛖)
Mkk2-SKARSMkk2-SKARS(2015) 
mTORC1FRET (⚡)
TORCARTORCAR(2015) 
p38FRET (⚡)
Transloc. (⛖)
p38 activity reporterp38 activity reporter(2015) 
p38-KTRp38-KTR(2014) 
PAK1FRET (⚡)
PakabiPakabi(2009) 
PDGFRFRET (⚡)
PDGFR BiosensorPDGFR Biosensor(2017) 
PDK1FRET (⚡)
PAREPARE(2011) 
PKAInten (☀)
FRET (⚡)
Ex. Rat.(★)
FLIM (♣)
Biolum. (⚫)
FLINC (◀)
Transloc. (⛖)
AKARRAB-AKARev(2018) ⚡NIR AKAR(2018) ☀sapphireAKAR(2018) ★ExRai-AKAR(2018) ⚡VcpV FLARE AKAR(2018) ☀blueAKAR(2018) ⚡VV FLARE AKAR(2018) ⚡C3C3 FLARE AKAR(2018) ⚡C3cpC3 FLARE AKAR(2018) ⚡mCh-mCh FLARE AKAR(2018) ♣AKARet(2017) ♣AKAR^dual(2017) ♣AKAR5(2017) ⚡AKAR4.1(2015) ♣FLIM-AKAR(2014) ⚡AKAR-CR(2012) ⚡ICUPID(2011) ⚡AKAR-GR(2011) ⚡AKAR3EV(2011) ⚡AKAR4(2011) ⚡bimAKAR(2011) ⚫LumAKAR(2011) ⚡CRY-AKAR(2008) ⚡AKAR3(2006) ⚡AKAR2(2005) ⚡AKAR1(2001) 
ARTART(2000) 
FLINC-AKAR1FLINC-AKAR1(2017) 
PKA-KTRPKA-KTR(2014) 
RLuc-PCA PKARLuc-PCA PKA(2007) 
Single Color PKA sensorGAk(2014) 
PKCInten (☀)
Ex. Rat.(★)
FRET (⚡)
FLIM (♣)
CKARblueCKAR(2018) ☀sapphireCKAR(2018) ★ExRai-CKAR(2018) ⚡CKAR(2003) 
Eevee-PKCEevee-PKC(2011) 
IDOCKSIDOCKSgamma(2018) ♣IDOCKSbeta(2018) ♣IDOCKSalpha(2018) 
ITRACKITRACKgamma(2018) ♣ITRACKbeta(2018) ♣ITRACKalpha(2018) 
KCPKCAP-1(2006) ⚡KCP-2(2006) ⚡KCP-1(2004) 
PKDFRET (⚡)
DKARDKAR(2007) 
G-PKDrepG-PKDrep live(2012) ⚡G-PKDrep(2009) 
PKM2FRET (⚡)
PKARPKAR2.3(2013) 
PTENBRET (◓)
Rluc-PTEN-YFPRluc-PTEN-YFP(2014) 
ROCKFRET (⚡)
Eevee-ROCKEevee-ROCK(2017) 
RSKFRET (⚡)
Eevee-RSKEevee-RSK(2011) 
RTKFRET (⚡)
PicchuPicchuEV(2011) ⚡Picchu(2001) 
S6KFRET (⚡)
Eevee-S6KEevee-S6K(2011) 
SAP3KFRET (⚡)
SAP3KSAP3K(2009) 
SrcFRET (⚡)
Src IndicatorBG-Src1.0(2013) ⚡YO-Src1.0(2012) ⚡Src Reporter (ECFP/YPet)(2008) ⚡Src Reporter(2005) ⚡Src Indicator(2001) 
SrcusSrcus(2007) 
ZAP-70FRET (⚡)
ROZAROZA(2008) 
Neurotransmitters
5-HTFRET (⚡)
Inten (☀)
5-HT 3A CNiFER5-HT 3A LGIC CNiFER(2011) 
dLight5HT2A-dLight(2018) 
AChFRET (⚡)
Inten (☀)
ACh CNiFERα4β2-nAChR LGIC CNiFER(2011) ⚡α7 LGIC CNiFER(2011) ⚡M1-CNiFER(2010) 
ACh-SnifitACh-Snifit^WA-E(2014) ⚡ACh-Snifit-E(2014) ⚡ACh-Snifit-D(2014) 
GAChGACh2.0(2018) ☀GACh1.0(2018) 
DopamineInten (☀)
FRET (⚡)
dLightdLight1.2(2018) 
Dopamine CNiFERD2 CNiFER(2014) 
GRABDAGRAB_DA1h(2018) ☀GRAB_DA1m(2018) 
GABAFRET (⚡)
GABA-SnifitGABA-Snifit(2012) 
GlutamateFRET (⚡)
Inten (☀)
FLIP GltFLIP-cpGltI210(2009) 
FLIPEFLII^81PE-1u(2005) ⚡FLIPE-Y Surface series(2005) ⚡FLIPE-Y Series(2005) 
GluSnFRsuperGluSnFR(2008) 
iGluSnFRiGlu_u(2018) ☀iGlu_f(2018) ☀iGluSnFR(2013) 
QBP based Gln SensorGln D157N reporter(2010) 
Snifit-iGluR5Snifit-iGluR5(2012) 
GlycineFRET (⚡)
glycine FRET sensorGlyFS(2018) 
NEFRET (⚡)
NE CNiFERα1A CNiFER(2014) 
Other PTMs
K27H3 methyltransferaseFRET (⚡)
K27 ReporterK27 Reporter(2004) 
K9H3 methyltransferaseFRET (⚡)
K9 ReporterK9 Reporter(2004) 
OGTFRET (⚡)
O-GlcNAc SensorO-GlcNAc Sensor(2006) 
UbiquitinationInten (☀)
REACh-UbiquitinREACh-Ubiquitin(2006) 
Other Signaling Proteins
Annexin 4FRET (⚡)
NEX4ORNEX4(2008) ⚡CYNEX4(2006) 
BaxTransloc. (⛖)
Bax Translocation reporterBax Translocation reporter(2016) 
beta Arrestin 2BRET (◓)
Beta Arrestin 2 ubiquitination biosensorBeta Arrestin 2 ubiquitination biosensor(2004) 
CaMFRET (⚡)
BSCaMBSCaM2(1999) ⚡BSCaM1(1997) 
MLCK-FIPMLCK-FIP(2002) 
CRACTransloc. (⛖)
PH(crac)-GFPPH(crac)-GFP(2002) 
CREBFRET (⚡)
ICAPICAP(2010) 
Histone AcetylationFRET (⚡)
HistacHistac-H3K9/14(2016) ⚡Histac-H4K12(2011) ⚡Histac-H4K5/8(2009) 
MLKLFRET (⚡)
SMARThSMART(2018) ⚡mSMART(2018) 
N-WASPFRET (⚡)
N-WASP BSN-WASP BS(2004) 
PMCAFRET (⚡)
PMCA Activity SensorBFP-PMCA-GFP(2007) 
PI/lipid
3prime IPTransloc. (⛖)
FRET (⚡)
GFP AKT domainsGFP-Akt(1999) ⛖GFP-AH(1999) 
Homo FRET mCherry-Akt-PHmCherry-Akt-PH(2015) 
InPAktInPAkt(2005) 
DAGTransloc. (⛖)
FRET (⚡)
Cys1-GFPC1_2-GFP(1998) ⛖Cys1-GFP(1998) 
DaglasDaglas-mit1(2006) ⚡Daglas-em1(2006) ⚡Daglas-pm1(2006) 
DAGRDAGR(2003) 
DigdaDigda(2008) 
Ins(1,3,4,5)P4Ex. Rat.(★)
Btk PH domain basedBtk-cpGFP(2009) 
IP3FRET (⚡)
BRET (◓)
Transloc. (⛖)
FIREFIRE-3(2006) ⚡FIRE-2(2006) ⚡FIRE-1(2006) 
fretinofretino(2015) ⚡FRET InsP3 sensor(2015) ⚡fretino-2(2005) 
GFP-PHGFP-PHD(1999) 
IRISIRIS-1(2006) 
LIBRALIBRAvI(2009) ⚡LIBRAvII(2009) ⚡LIBRAVIIIS(2009) ⚡LIBRAvIII(2009) ⚡LIBRA(2004) 
PAFRET (⚡)
PiiPii-DK(2010) 
PI(3)PTransloc. (⛖)
GFP-FYVEGFP-FYVE (FENS-1)(2001) ⛖GFP-Pib1p(1998) ⛖GFP-EEA1 (FYVE)(1998) 
GFP-PXGFP-PX(2001) 
PI(3,4)P2FRET (⚡)
Pippi-PI(3,4)P2Pippi-PI(3,4)P2(2006) 
PI(3,5)P2Transloc. (⛖)
GFP-MLN1GFP-MLN1(2013) 
PI(4)PBRET (◓)
FRET (⚡)
BRET PI(4)P sensorsSidM-2xP4M(2016) ◓OSH2-2xPH(2016) 
PippiPippi-PI(4)P(2008) 
PI(4,5)P2FRET (⚡)
Transloc. (⛖)
Rat. (◧)
CAYCAY(2004) 
CYPHRCYPHR(2003) 
FP-TubbyFP-Tubby(2001) 
FPX PIP2 sensorFPX PIP2 sensor(2015) 
PH(PLCdelta)PH(PLCdelta)-CFP/YFP(2001) ⛖PH(PLCdelta) - GFP(1998) ⛖GFP-PH(1998) 
Pippi-PI(4,5)P2Pippi-PI(4,5)P2(2008) 
R-PRER-PRE(2006) 
PIP3FRET (⚡)
Transloc. (⛖)
BRET (◓)
FLLIPFLLIP(2003) 
InPAktInPAkt(2005) 
Labeled PH domainsPH(PKB)-GFP(1999) ⛖PH(GRP1)-GFP(1999) 
PIP3 BRET sensorPIP3 BRET sensor(2012) 
PSTransloc. (⛖)
2xPH(EVECTIN2)2xPH(EVECTIN2)(2011) ⛖2xPH(EVECTIN2)(2011) 
cPLA2-C2cPLA2-C2-GFP(2003) 
Lact-C2mRFP - Lact-C2(2008) ⛖GFP - Lact-C2(2008) 
PKC-C2PKCα-C2-EGFP(2003) ⛖C2-GFP(1998) 
PLCdelta1-C2PLCdelta1-C2-EGFP(2002) 
Protease
Atg4aFRET (⚡)
FRET-LC3BFRET-LC3B(2012) 
Atg4bFRET (⚡)
FRET-GATE-16FRET-GATE-16(2012) 
Caspase1Rat. (◧)
FPX caspase 1 sensorsingle polypeptide FPX caspase 1 sensor(2015) 
Caspase3Rat. (◧)
Inten (☀)
FRET (⚡)
ddFP basedsingle polypeptide FPX Caspase 3 sensor(2015) ◧Bimolecular FPX Caspase 3 reporter(2015) ☀ddRFP-A1B1-DEVD(2012) 
DEVDmAmetrine-DEVD-tdTomato(2008) ⚡mCitrine-DEVD-mTFP1(2008) ⚡BFP-DEVD-GFP(2002) ⚡Sensor C3(2001) ⚡CFP-DEVD-YFP(2000) 
DEVKMiCy-DEVK-mKO(2004) 
EC-RPEC-RP(2008) 
Far-Red Caspase sensorsmKate2-DEVD-iRFP(2016) 
Intein BasedsDnaB-cpM4(DEVD)(2013) 
iProteaseiCasper(2015) 
SCAT3SCAT3(2003) 
yDMQDcyDMQDc(2006) 
Caspase8FRET (⚡)
Rat. (◧)
Bid cleavage sensorBid cleavage sensor(2002) 
FPX caspase 8 sensorsingle polypeptide FPX caspase 8 sensor(2015) 
IC-RPIC-RP(2008) 
Caspase9FRET (⚡)
SCAT9SCAT9(2003) 
MT1-MMPFRET (⚡)
MT1-MMP BiosensorMT1-MMP Biosensor (mCherry/mOrange2)(2010) ⚡MT1-MMP Biosensor(2008) 
Receptors/GPCRs
A1RFRET (⚡)
A1R SPASMA1R - FL Gαs SPASM(2017) ⚡A1R - FL Gαi SPASM(2017) 
Beta1-ARInten (☀)
dLightB1AR-dLight(2018) 
Beta2-ARBRET (◓)
Inten (☀)
FRET (⚡)
Transloc. (⛖)
BRET^2 β2-AR Activation Probesβ2AR-RLuc G alpha s-GFP10(2005) ◓β2AR-RLuc GFP-Gbeta1(2005) ◓β2AR-RLuc GFP-Ggamma2(2005) 
dLightB2AR-dLight(2018) 
β2-AR SPASMβ2-AR FL Gαq SPASM(2017) ⚡β2-AR FL Gαs SPASM(2017) ⚡β2-AR-Gα SPASM(2013) 
Nb80Nb80-GFP(2013) 
Dictyostelium GPCRFRET (⚡)
Labeled G proteinsGβ-YFP + Gα2-CFP(2001) 
DRD2Inten (☀)
iTangoDRD2-iTango(2017) 
GαiFRET (⚡)
Gαi SensorGαi1 Sensor v2(2016) ⚡Gαi3 Sensor v2(2016) ⚡Gαi2 Sensor v2(2016) ⚡G(alpha)i3 v1(2006) ⚡Galphai1 v1(2006) ⚡Galphai2 v1(2006) ⚡Bunemann Gai-Gg2(2003) ⚡Bunemann Gai-Gb1(2003) 
GαqFRET (⚡)
Gαq SensorGαq Sensor (v2)(2011) ⚡Gαq Sensor (v1)(2009) 
GαsFRET (⚡)
BRET (◓)
Transloc. (⛖)
Gαs SensorGαs Sensor(2006) 
Gs Activation BRET AssayRLucII-117-Gαs + GFP10-Gγ1(2016) 
Nb37 basedNb37-YFP(2017) 
α1-ARFRET (⚡)
α1-AR SPASMα1-AR FL Gαq SPASM(2017) 
α2A-ARInten (☀)
FRET (⚡)
BRET (◓)
dLightA2AR-dLight(2018) 
α2-AR SPASMα2-AR FL Gαs SPASM(2017) ⚡α2-AR FL Gαi SPASM(2017) 
α2A-AR + labeled G proteinα2A-AR-Venus + G alpha i1 - 122Rluc(2006) ◓α2A-AR-Venus + G alpha i1 - 91Rluc(2006) ◓α2A-AR-Venus + RLuc-Ggamma2(2006) ⚡α2A-YFP + CFP-Ggamma2(2005) 
α2A-AR activation sensorα2A-AR-cam(2003) 
kappa-opioid receptorInten (☀)
dLightKOR-dLight(2018) 
M1RFRET (⚡)
M1R Activation SensorM1R-EYFP-Cerulean(2009) 
MT2Inten (☀)
dLightMT2-dLight(2018) 
mu-opioid receptorInten (☀)
dLightMOR-dLight(2018) 
ODR-10BRET (◓)
OGOROGOR(2011) 
opsinFRET (⚡)
opsin SPASMopsin-Gα SPASM(2013) 
PTHRFRET (⚡)
PTHR activation sensorPTHR-cam(2003) 
TrkBFLIM (♣)
TrkB-PLC interactionTrkB Sensor(2016) 
VEGFBRET (◓)
BRET VEGF biosensorBRET VEGF biosensor(2016) 
Redox
H2O2Ex. Rat.(★)
Inten (☀)
FRET (⚡)
HyPerHyPerRed(2014) ★HyPer-3(2013) ★HyPer-2(2011) ★HyPer(2006) 
roGFP based H2O2 sensorroGFP2-Tsa2 delta Cp delta Cr(2016) ★roGFP2-Tsa2 delta Cr(2016) ★roGFP2-GPx4(2009) ★roGFP2-Orp1(2009) 
Unnatural Amino Acid H2O2 sensorUFP-Tyr66pBoPhe(2012) 
Yap1 based H2O2 sensorPerFRET(2013) ⚡OxyFRET(2013) 
H2SInten (☀)
pAzF H2S sensorshsGFP(2014) ☀cpGFP-Tyr66pAzF(2012) 
NADP+FRET (⚡)
Apollo-NADP+Apollo-NADP+(2016) 
NADPsorNADPsor(2016) 
NADP+:NADPH RatioFRET (⚡)
NADP-SnifitNADP-Snifit(2018) 
NADPHEx. Rat.(★)
BRET (◓)
iNapiNap3(2017) ★iNap2(2017) ★iNap1(2017) 
Semi-synthetic BRET SensorSNAP-P30-[cpNLuc inserted]eDHFR(2018) 
NOFRET (⚡)
FRET-MTFRET-MT(2000) 
sGC based NO biosensorPiccell(2006) ⚡NOA-1(2005) 
OHPInten (☀)
OHSerOHSer(2010) 
ONOO-Inten (☀)
pnGFPpnGFP(2013) 
redox statusFRET (⚡)
Ex. Rat.(★)
Inten (☀)
HSP33HSP-FRET(2006) 
redox-sensitive linkerCY-RL7(2011) ⚡RedoxFluor(2010) ⚡ECFP-RL-EYFP(2008) 
roGFProGFP1-iX(2008) ★Grx1-roGFP2(2008) ★roGFP1-Rx Family(2006) ★roGFP2(2004) ★roGFP1(2004) 
rxRFPTrxRFP1(2017) ☀rxRFP1.X Sensitivity series(2016) ☀rxRFP(2015) 
rxYFPrxYFP-Grx1p(2006) ☀rxYFP^149_202(2001) 
superoxideInten (☀)
mt-cpYFPmt-cpYFP(2008) 
Small G-Protein
Cdc42FRET (⚡)
FLIM (♣)
(CDC42) GEF Sensor(CDC42) GEF Sensor(2003) 
CDC42 BiosensorCDC42 Biosensor(2014) 
Cdc42 FRETCdc42 FRET (mRuby2/mCherry (I202Y))(2016) ♣Cdc42-CyRM(2016) ♣Cdc42 FRET(2011) 
CDC42 RaichuCDC42 Raichu(2002) ⚡CRIB Raichu(2002) 
Cdc42-2GCdc42-2G(2016) 
GDI Cdc42 FLAREGDI Cdc42 FLARE(2016) 
Rab5FRET (⚡)
Rab5 RaichuRab5 Raichu(2008) 
Rac1FRET (⚡)
FLAIRFLAIR(2000) 
FLARERac1-FLARE(2009) 
GDI Rac1 FLAREGDI Rac1 FLARE(2016) 
Rac1 RaichuRac1 Raichu EV(2011) ⚡CRIB Raichu(2002) ⚡Rac1 Raichu(2002) 
Single Chain Rac1 biosensorsNIR Rac1 Biosensor(2018) ⚡Single chain Rac1 Biosensor v2(2016) ⚡Rac1-2G(2015) ⚡Single-chain Rac1 Biosensor(2014) 
Rac2FRET (⚡)
Single Chain Rac2 biosensorsSingle Chain Rac2 biosensor(2016) 
Rac3FRET (⚡)
Single Chain Rac3 biosensorsSingle Chain Rac3 biosensor(2017) 
RalFRET (⚡)
Raichu-RalRaichu-RalB(2004) ⚡Raichu-RalA(2004) 
RanFRET (⚡)
Ran FRET probesYIC(2002) ⚡YRC(2002) 
Rap1 FRET (⚡)
Rap1 RaichuRap1 Raichu(2001) 
RasFRET (⚡)
FLIM (♣)
DORA RasDORA Ras(2015) 
FRasShadowY H-Ras Sensor(2017) ♣ShadowG FRas2-M(2015) ♣FRas2-M(2013) ♣FRas2-F(2013) ♣FRas-F(2006) ♣FRas(2006) 
Ras RaichuRas Raichu EV(2011) ⚡Ras Raichu(2001) 
RhoAFRET (⚡)
FLIM (♣)
GDI-RhoA FLAREGDI-RhoA FLARE(2016) 
RhoA FLARERhoA DORA(2015) ⚡RhoA2G(2013) ⚡bimolecular RhoA Biosensor(2009) ⚡RhoA FLARE | RhoA1G(2006) 
RhoA FRETRhoA FRET (mRuby2/mCherry (I202Y))(2016) ♣RhoA-CyRM(2016) ♣RhoA-FRET(2011) 
RhoA RaichuRhoA Raichu CR(2012) ⚡RBD Raichu(2006) ⚡RhoA Raichu(2003) 
RhoBFRET (⚡)
DORA RhoBRhoB FRET Sensor(2016) 
RhoCFRET (⚡)
DORA RhoCRhoC FRET Sensor(2016) 
RhoC FLARERhoC FLARE(2013) 
RhoQFRET (⚡)
TC10 RaichuTC10 Raichu(2006) 
RRasFRET (⚡)
RRas RaichuRRas Raichu(2007)